Scientist Stephen Hawking before his death in March completed the work that took up most of his 56-years-long career. The central themes of the physicist’s work included the determination whether or not black holes preserve and retain the information about the objects that fall into them. While some researchers believe that all such data is destroyed, others contradict it by saying that it is not possible as it violates the very laws of quantum mechanics which state that everything in this world can be brought down to strings of 1s and 0s and all this information cannot be lost at any cost.
Hawking based his work on that of Einstein. He proved that black holes have temperatures and as hot objects lose their heat in space, black holes certainly disappear from existence by evaporating. They are selected regions in space with such strong gravity that anything that gets sucked into it cannot escape. Malcolm Perry of Cambridge University said that Hawking had discovered the immense uncertainties about black holes which are actual physical entities lying at the centers of several galaxies having temperatures and properties called entropy. Entropy is defined as the measurement of various ways in which an object can be produced from its microscopic components while looking the same. Perry said that while discussing the paper with Hawking shortly prior to his demise, he did not know that the famous physicist was unwell. The paper shows that photons surrounding the event horizon (point from which no object can escape the black hole’s gravitational pull) of the black holes record its entropy. This is a really big step to a long journey ahead, said Perry.
Hawking along with Roger Penrose had proved that if a Big Bang had occurred, it must have begun from a singularity- an infinitely small point. Other discoveries include finding out that black holes radiate energy called Hawking Radiation as they continue to lose mass; predicting that mini-black holes existed during the Big Bang which were destroyed in huge explosions. With Leonard Susskind disagreeing that information is lost when objects are pulled into black holes, the ‘information paradox’ was born with Hawking too saying that all information must be conserved. Hawking and James Hartle tried determining history of cosmos in one mathematical equation but could not do so as distinctions between time and space are unclear.